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CYBER WARS
Chelsea Manning: from antisecrecy activist to transgender idol
By Paul HANDLEY
Washington (AFP) May 17, 2017


From combat videos to candid comments: Manning's leaks
Washington (AFP) May 17, 2017 - From graphic videos of US military assaults in Iraq and Afghanistan, to candid comments by heads of state, secrets leaked by transgender army private Chelsea Manning caused Washington major embarrassment and upset relations with its allies.

In July 2010, Manning -- then a male soldier known as Bradley -- was arrested over the release of a huge trove of more than 700,000 classified military and diplomatic documents via WikiLeaks.

On Wednesday, Manning was released from the prison at Fort Leavenworth in Kansas owing to a commutation of her sentence by president Barack Obama before he left office.

Now 29, Manning said at the time she hoped to encourage debate about America's wars, but the leaked files stretched far beyond the battlefields in Iraq and Afghanistan, with diplomatic cables embarrassing senior officials on nearly every continent.

Here is a chronological summary of the material disclosed by Manning:

-- The first document published by WikiLeaks that Manning admitted to having leaked was a diplomatic cable from the US Embassy in Iceland released on February 18, 2010.

-- Starting in November 2010, five major global news organizations -- The New York Times, The Guardian, Der Spiegel, Le Monde and El Pais -- collaborated with WikiLeaks to partially publish more than a quarter of a million State Department cables from US embassies and consulates dated 1966 to 2010.

-- Manning admitted to the "willful transmission" of a video that showed a US attack helicopter mowing down Iraqi civilians in July 2007. Dubbed "collateral murder" by WikiLeaks, the video was made public by WikiLeaks founder Julian Assange during a news conference in Washington in April 2010.

-- Manning also acknowledged transmitting a confidential video of a US air strike on the Afghan village of Granai, where more than a hundred civilians lost their lives in May 2009.

-- More than 90,000 documents linked to the war in Afghanistan were published in July 2010, followed in October of that year by more than 400,000 others connected to the conflict in Iraq. The reports showed US troops ignoring torture by local allies and killing civilians on a number of occasions.

-- Confidential files related to 779 detainees who passed through the military prison at Guantanamo Bay -- leaked by Manning and published in April 2011 -- revealed new details about their treatment at the "war on terror" prison.

Chelsea Manning was a meek, geeky army private who stunned the world in 2010 by leaking a massive trove of secret US diplomatic records, hoping to spark debate over the country's role in wars.

But she exited military prison Wednesday after serving seven years for her crime equally known for a heartbreaking, ultimately triumphant struggle with her gender during her time in jail.

The former Private Bradley Manning, 29, survived two suicide attempts and the US military's conservative views on gender while serving a 35-year sentence for espionage for handing over hundreds of thousands of pages of US diplomatic communications and other records to WikiLeaks in 2010.

She maintained that she never intended to hurt US interests, and her sentence was commuted by outgoing President Barack Obama in January, who called the punishment "very disproportionate" to the crime.

Born a male in a small rural Oklahoma town, Manning grew up in Wales after her parents divorced; Manning's father kicked her out of the house when he learned of his child's sexual orientation.

She developed a talent in computing, and after finishing school, joined the US Army in 2007. She has said she thought of herself as female since she was young, and struggled in the macho environment of the military. At the time, she was subject to the military's ban on openly gay troops, known as "Don't Ask, Don't Tell."

- Prison gender change -

After basic training she was assigned to an intelligence unit and in 2009 was sent to Iraq, deploying to a base near Baghdad where she was given access to a broad set of US intelligence on the military's classified computer network.

She began downloading files, including an explosive video of a US helicopter gunship mowing down Iraqi civilians two years earlier, documents on US treatment of detainees in the military prison in Guantanamo Bay, and more secret documents on the wars in Afghanistan and Iraq.

Detained in May 2010 over the initial leaks, she later admitted to downloading some 700,000 sensitive files and turning them over to WikiLeaks.

"I want people to see the truth... because without information, you cannot make informed decisions as a public," she confided in online chats with a former hacker who reported her to authorities.

But Manning's trial and imprisonment brought out the dramatic struggle she had over her gender.

After she was convicted and sentenced in 2013, she announced she was a female and requested medical treatment -- including hormone therapy -- to enable her to become a woman.

In a path-breaking legal battle in military courts, she won the support of judges to be referred to as a woman, and to receive therapy for so-called gender "reassignment."

But rules at the Ft. Leavenworth, Kansas military prison were still tough. Though permitted to wear women's undergarments, she was forbidden to grow her hair long.

And in court she was still referred to as "he" with regard to any proceedings prior to her official name change.

"I am torn up," she said in a 2015 interview with Cosmopolitan magazine. "I get through each day OK, but at night, when I'm alone in my room, I finally burn out and crash."

But she also said she found support in letters from transgender people around the world.

Her stress over the gender shift led to two suicide attempts in 2016. In September, Manning began a hunger strike to protest what she said was the military's refusal to treat her gender dysphoria.

- 'First steps to freedom' -

While her leaking secret documents to WikiLeaks still garners tough criticism in US military and intelligence circles, Obama said on January 18 that justice had been adequately served by her seven years behind bars.

"It has been my view that given she went to trial, that due process was carried out, that she took responsibility for her crime, that the sentence that she received was very disproportionate relative to what other leakers had received, and that she had served a significant amount of time, that it made sense to commute and not pardon her sentence," he said.

Newly free, in her first public act Wednesday Manning posted a photograph on social media of her feet in brand-new black Converse All-Stars, saying: "First Steps of Freedom".

CYBER WARS
WikiLeaks source Chelsea Manning set to be released
Fort Leavenworth, United States (AFP) May 17, 2017
Chelsea Manning, the transgender army private jailed for one of the largest leaks of classified documents in US history, is set to walk out of a military prison Wednesday after seven years behind bars. In July 2010, Manning - then a male soldier known as Bradley - was arrested over the release of a huge trove of more than 700,000 classified military and diplomatic documents via WikiLeaks. ... read more

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