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Outside View: Politics of benign neglect

India, Pakistan PMs to hold direct talks
Thimphu (AFP) April 28, 2010 - The leaders of India and Pakistan will hold direct talks Thursday at a regional summit in Bhutan, as the rival nations inch their way towards resuming a dialogue frozen since the 2008 Mumbai attacks. The meeting between Indian Prime Minister Manmohan Singh and his Pakistani counterpart Yousuf Raza Gilani will take place on the sidelines of the South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation (SAARC) gathering, an Indian foreign ministry spokesman said Wednesday. He gave no indication as to how long the talks would last or what would be on the agenda. The atmosphere ahead of the meeting was soured by India's announcement Tuesday that a female diplomat working at the Indian embassy in Islamabad had been arrested on suspicion of passing secrets to Pakistani intelligence.

Speaking to reporters in the Bhutanese capital Thimphu, Pakistani Foreign Minister Shah Mahmood Qureshi said any talks should address the need to resume a full-fledged peace dialogue. "It's time for India to make up its mind whether it wants to engage or not... Engagement is the only way forward," Qureshi said. "We need to go beyond a handshake," he added, referring to Singh and Gilani's cursory exchange of pleasantries at a summit on nuclear security in Washington earlier this month. India broke off formal dialogue with Pakistan after the 2008 Mumbai attacks, in which at least 166 people died and which New Delhi blamed on Pakistan-based militants.

Contact was tentatively renewed at a meeting of foreign ministry officials in Delhi in February. But India insisted that resuming a full dialogue depended on Pakistan's bringing to justice those responsible for the Mumbai carnage. Addressing the summit's opening session, Gilani stressed that Pakistan was also a victim of the "toxic brew" of terrorism pervading the region. "We need to join hands to fight it individually and collectively," he said. Pakistan, which recently handed over to India six dossiers on its own investigation into the Mumbai attacks, is currently holding seven suspects linked to the assault, including the alleged mastermind Zakiur Rehman Lakhvi. Qureshi said it was time for India to move forward and stop demonising Pakistan.

"We have to accept terrorism is a common challenge. It's not us and you, it's a collective effort," he said. SAARC, which groups Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, the Maldives, Nepal, Pakistan and Sri Lanka, was formed in 1985 to boost development and raise the living standards of poverty-stricken people in a region that is home to a fifth of humanity. Twenty-five years and 15 summits later, it has achieved little, largely due to nuclear-armed India and Pakistan's volatile relationship, say critics. The spying scandal that erupted Tuesday involves a 53-year-old junior diplomat working in the information service of the Indian embassy in Islamabad.

The woman, Madhuri Gupta, a second secretary in the embassy, was arrested for breaching the official secrets act, which carries a maximum 14-year jail term. The Press Trust of India said she had worked in the mission for nearly three years and is alleged to have passed on information from the Islamabad head of India's external intelligence service. In Thimphu, Indian Foreign Minister S.M. Krishna said Gupta faced a joint probe by the police and home ministry detectives. "The investigations are going on and we will have to wait till it is complete and then we will find out what was the motive and what was the modus operandi," Krishna said. File image courtesy AFP.
by Stanley A. Weiss
New Delhi (UPI) Apr 28, 2010
Imagine for a moment that 15 months after the terrorist attacks of 9/11, Indian authorities captured attack mastermind and Osama bin Laden henchman Khalid Sheik Mohammed in a raid in southern India. Imagine how loudly and quickly the U.S. government and media would have demanded extradition from India to the United States.

Now, imagine the outrage if India announced instead that it had struck a plea bargain with Mohammed and not only refused extradition but refused to allow American authorities to interview him at all.

And yet, since his arrest in Chicago on Oct. 3, 2009, American authorities have had in their custody a Pakistani American named David Coleman Headley, who has confessed to playing a lead role in the deadly terrorist attack in Mumbai on Nov. 26, 2008 -- memorialized in India as 26-11 -- that left 170 people dead and 300 wounded.

More than seven months later, not only have Indian authorities yet to interview Headley, a team of interrogators that traveled to Washington to investigate his connection to Pakistani terror group Lashkar-e-Toiba was turned away.

Three weeks ago came word of what one Indian newspaper dubbed "a kick in the gut": in exchange for admitting his role in the Mumbai attack, among others, Headley was granted a plea deal by U.S. authorities that he wouldn't be extradited to India. Outrage in India reached such heights that Prime Minister Manmohan Singh was forced to raise the issue with President Barack Obama at last week's Nuclear Security Summit in Washington, reportedly earning a pledge from the president that India would "get access."

Friends don't make friends beg for cooperation. But even as U.S. Ambassador Tim Roemer tells me that "relations between the U.S. and India have never been better," there is a growing perception in the markets and chat rooms in India that the friendship between the world's oldest democracy and its largest is souring -- driven by an Obama administration that thinks it is doing a better job in Delhi than it actually is.

"What we worry about regarding the future of U.S.-India relations is general uncertainty and China's new role since this global economic crisis," says Indian National Security Adviser Shivshankar Menon. "Those are henny-penny worries right now. The real worry is the Afghanistan situation and Pakistan's negative statements and terrorism."

"The U.S. dilemma in Afghanistan," says former Indian Ambassador to Pakistan G. Parthasarathy, "is that the war is unpopular domestically. Ninety percent of Indians believe that means America will cut and run -- they will cut a deal with the Taliban and withdraw prematurely, before the Afghan army is ready. It will be a disaster."

Retired Indian army Maj. Gen. Afsir Karim agrees. "A timeline that precludes an open-ended U.S. deployment has been welcomed in Pakistan because most people and the army believe this will motivate the Taliban to fight with great vigor and hasten the withdrawal of U.S.-backed forces," he says. "On the other hand, the Taliban will be able to evade American attacks by crossing over to Pakistan border areas and waiting until the U.S. offensive loses momentum."

Adds Shekhar Gupta, editor in chief of India Express, "We aren't so much worried about the U.S. going home but we are worried about the hardware left behind when they do."

Since 2001, America has given its nuclear-armed ally in Islamabad more than $15 billion in direct aid and military reimbursements. Most worrisome to India are the 18 F-16s due to be delivered by summer, along with 115 M-109 self-propelled howitzers and 20 Cobra attack helicopters -- on top of 5,250 anti-armor missiles already delivered.

"When's the last time you heard about F-16s being used to take down the Taliban?" asks Y.K. Sinha, Indian joint secretary in charge of Pakistan. "These aren't weapons that will be used against al-Qaida. Those are weapons that will either be used against India or go to China."

Adds scholar Brahma Chellaney: "The vast majority of Pakistanis rate America as its biggest enemy, with India second. Washington isn't focusing on this: how will these weapons be used?"

What can Washington do? Three immediate steps:

First, give Indian authorities immediate access to Headley, with no more delays. Rumors in India that he is a CIA agent gone rouge only poison the relationship more.

Second, condition ongoing aid to Pakistan on Pakistani Prime Minister Yousuf Raza Gilani making good on his pledge to track down the Pakistanis responsible for the Mumbai attacks -- and to open an investigation into evidence that Pakistanis planned last February's attack on the Indian Embassy in Kabul.

With 45 terrorist training camps rumored in Pakistan, if Pakistan doesn't act to curb violence against India -- India soon will.

Third, refocus the discussion on economic relations. A record number of U.S. executives disillusioned with doing business in China is flooding into India. Business-to-business cooperation is stronger than ever. Bringing public attention to those growing ties will help counterbalance disillusionment over security issues.

As a high-ranking Indian businesswoman told me: "The U.S. and India are an unhappy couple but they will never get a divorce. They need each other too much."

(Stanley A. Weiss is founding chairman of Business Executives for National Security, a nonpartisan organization of senior executives who use the best practices of business to strengthen the nation's security.)

(United Press International's "Outside View" commentaries are written by outside contributors who specialize in a variety of important issues. The views expressed do not necessarily reflect those of United Press International. In the interests of creating an open forum, original submissions are invited.)

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Spy scandal sours mood for India-Pakistan talks
Thimphu (AFP) April 28, 2010
India and Pakistan's leaders were due to meet Wednesday at a regional summit in Bhutan, but a spy scandal dented already slim hopes that they might find a way back to substantive peace talks. On Tuesday on the eve of Indian Prime Minister Manmohan Singh's departure for the summit, officials in New Delhi said that an Indian diplomat working at their embassy in Islamabad had been arrested on s ... read more

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