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CYBER WARS
US surveillance flap shines light on Web 'anonymizers'
by Staff Writers
Washington (AFP) June 15, 2013


Facebook reveals details of US data requests
Washington (AFP) June 15, 2013 - Facebook revealed Friday it received between 9,000 and 10,000 requests for user data from US authorities in the second half of last year, as it seeks to shield itself from a growing scandal.

The requests covered issues from child disappearances to petty crimes and terror threats and targeted between 18,000 and 19,000 accounts, the social networking site said, without revealing how often it complied with the requests.

Facebook "aggressively" protects its users' data, the company's general counsel Ted Ullyot said in a statement.

"We frequently reject such requests outright, or require the government to substantially scale down its requests, or simply give the government much less data than it has requested. And we respond only as required by law," he added.

Facebook is fighting an expanding public backlash after a government contractor revealed it was among nine Internet giants that turned over user data to the secret National Security Agency surveillance program PRISM.

The companies, which also include Apple, Google, Microsoft and Yahoo, have denied claims the NSA could directly access their servers. US authorities have said the program helped prevent terror attacks.

Facebook said it was able to report all US national security-related requests, which no company had previously been allowed to do, after pressing the government to release more details about the program.

But, for now, it said the government would only allow Facebook to provide the numbers in aggregate form and as a range.

"This is progress, but we're continuing to push for even more transparency, so that our users around the world can understand how infrequently we are asked to provide user data on national security grounds," Ullyot said.

Google asked the FBI and US Justice Department this week for permission to release numbers related to its handing over of data for the leaked surveillance programs, saying it has "nothing to hide."

The company's "transparency report" on government requests does not include national security requests under the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act (FISA) that authorized PRISM.

Philippine hacker publishes president's 'personal mobile numbers'
Manila (AFP) June 15, 2013 - A Philippine hacker has posted online what he claimed to be the president's personal mobile telephone numbers, with Benigno Aquino's spokesman Saturday denouncing the act as "cyber vandalism".

Aquino spokesman Ricky Carandang would not confirm if the numbers were really the president's, or if their release on the worldwide web had compromised the leader's personal security or state secrets.

"It's cyber vandalism plain and simple," Carandang told AFP.

"We're dealing with it. That's all I can say for now."

The three "Personal Mobile Number(s)" were posted late Friday on the Facebook site of a user named "#pR.is0n3r".

The site owner urged his followers, who numbered more than 9,000 as of Saturday, to communicate directly with their president.

All three phone numbers were apparently no longer working on Saturday morning when dialled by AFP.

"The majority are not getting answers to so many issues. It is difficult to speak to a person through go-betweens. If we send him a letter we're not even sure he will receive it," the user wrote in Filipino.

The author said he belonged to the hacker group "Anonymous Philippines", which has vandalised a number of government websites in the past.

The Facebook post was also linked to a Twitter micro-blog site with the same user name.

News of a massive surveillance effort led by the secretive National Security Agency has sent Web users scrambling to find new ways to avoid tracking.

It might have seemed paranoid not long ago when netizens used tools to hide their tracks, "shred" data or send self-destructing messages.

Web anonymizers, encryption programs and similar tools have been available for years, but have been often associated with hackers, criminals and other "dark" elements on the Internet.

"I think the notion of what is an unreasonable level of paranoia has shifted in the past couple of weeks," said Alex Stamos, an NCC Group security consultant and self-described "white hat" hacker.

Ironically, some tools for eluding detection come from US government-funded programs aimed at helping people living under authoritarian regimes.

"The technologies usable in Tehran or Phnom Penh are just as usable in New York or Washington," said Sascha Meinrath, who heads a New America Foundation program helping users maintain secure and private communications in totalitarian countries.

"The real problem is that many people don't know these tools exist and a lot of them are not usable to non-geeks."

One of the well-known programs used to hide online traces is Tor, a tool originally developed by the US military and now managed by the nonprofit Tor Project.

Tor, which has some 500,000 users worldwide, about 15 percent of whom are in the United States, can be used online to hide one's IP address, effectively blocking tracking by governments or commercial entities seeking to deliver targeted advertising.

Tor's development director Karen Reilly said the US government promotes the program in other countries, but noted that it also protects against snooping from US law enforcement.

"We get inquiries from law enforcement saying criminals are using Tor, and they want to know where the back door is," she said.

"There is no back door. We are protecting you not only from your (Internet provider) but from us. We never keep records that can identify our users."

Reilly brushed aside concerns about nefarious elements on the Internet hiding behind Tor and similar programs.

"Criminals are the ultimate early adopters of new technologies," she said.

If anonymous programs were not available, Reilly said "they would find another option."

People in the hacker and security communities say they are not surprised about the National Security Agency's PRISM program, but that its scope and its ability to scoop up huge amounts of data -- if reports are correct -- are frightening.

"The problem is we are keeping 'gold' in databases and it's impossible to secure this," said Nico Sell, a founder of Wickr, a startup that makes an app to allow people to secure and "shred" data sent on mobile devices.

Sell said she has seen "a tremendous uptick in downloads over the last week" of the Wickr app.

"People are now realizing that they get more security and are switching over from Skype," she said.

"All of our messages self-destruct... everyone has wanted self-destructing messages since 'Mission Impossible.'"

Casey Oppenheim, co-founded of an online identity-masking program called disconnect.me, said he has surprisingly not seen a surge in downloads since the revelations, adding that it is not clear if Web users understand the implications of PRISM.

Oppenheim said the databases of major firms contain history of Web browsing searching which he called "highly personal."

"It's a direct connection to your personal thoughts... all of that information is online, it's very easy to get a hold of. Most people don't understand the extent to which this happens."

Oppenheim said the software operates like Tor, but has "an extra layer of protection" that allows users to log into their personal accounts and still remain anonymous online.

Stamos said that on the corporate side, communications cannot be encrypted because they must be available in case of court actions or subpoenas.

He said individuals can encrypt their emails but that this was too complicated for most people, requiring an exchange of encryption "keys."

In the browsing area, the search engine DuckDuckGo, which does not store IP addresses, said it has seen record growth.

"I think since the story broke, people have been seeking out privacy alternatives," said DuckDuckGo founder Gabriel Weinberg.

"No one from law enforcement has ever come to us for data, but if they did we wouldn't have it."

Graham Cluley, a British-based independent security consultant, said people who use privacy tools should not be viewed as criminals.

"What would be troubling is if society begins to slide toward a viewpoint that paints the use of encryption and other tools that aim to protect our privacy as somehow 'dark arts,'" he said.

Meinrath of the New America Foundation said it would be ludicrous to try to ban online privacy tools.

"You would have to make illegal the pen or the computer or just about any other communication tool ever devised," he said.

The US Postal Service cannot open mail without probable cause "and yet the government is saying that if that is an electronic communication they have a right to surveillance," he said.

"The privacy of our correspondence is fundamental to our democracy."

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